Sanskrit Institute

पठत संस्कृतम्

Lesson 2 – द्वितीय पाठ:

प्रिय मित्राः – priya mitrAhA – Dear friends,

     Today, we shall discuss about the second part of Sanskrit Alphabets. In the previous section we discussed about the vowels. Now, we use the sounds which are generated by the movements of our speech organs. Vowels are the sounds which are generated automatically when we breath (अ – आ), smile (इ – ई), surprise (उ – ऊ) and others. The sounds which can be generated by controlling the speech organs such as tongue, tooth, lips, throat we can generate nearly 32 different kind of sounds. These sounds can be generated either by exhaling the air or not. These sounds are called consonants. It can be said as “A basic speech sound in which the breath is at least partly obstructed and which can be combined with a vowel to form a syllable”.

These sounds can be classified as

  1. Guttural – Sounds purely generated from the base of throat alone.
  2. Palatal – Sounds generated with the help of tongue.
  3. Cerebral – Sounds generated from the throat and it reaches the cerebral portion of head when it finishes.
  4. Dental – Sounds generated when the tongue and tooth are joined.
  5. Labial – Sounds generated when the tip of the tongue makes any one or both the lips active. The tongue should not touch the any  of the tooth.
  6. Semi Vowel – Sounds that is intermediate to a vowel and a consonant and must not be a syllabic sound.
  7. Sibilants – Sounds made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth.
  8. Aspirant – Sound that is generated completely when air elapses out of the mouth.

The following table explains in detail about the combination of sounds with vowels, and results the consonants.

Table 2 : Classical Sanskrit Letters – CONSONANTS – व्यञ्जनानि – VyanjanAni

लृ अं अः
G
U
T
T
U
R
A
L
S
क् का कि की कु कू कृ के कै को कौ कं कः
ख् खा खि खी खु खू खृ खे खै खो खौ खं खः
ग् गा गि गी गु गू गृ गे गै गो गौ गं गः
घ् घा घि घी घु घू घृ घे घै घो घौ घं घः
ङ् ड़ा ड़ि ड़ी ड़ु ड़ू ड़ृ ड़े ड़ै ड़ो ड़ौ ड़ं ड़ः
P
A
L
T
A
L
S
च् चा चि ची चु चू चृ चे चै चो चौ चं चः
छ् छा छि छी छु छू छृ छे छै छो छौ छं छः
ज् जा जि जी जु जू जृ जे जै जो जौ जं जः
झ् झा झि झी झु झू झृ झे झै झो झौ झं झः
ञ् ञा ञि ञी ञु ञू ञृ ञे ञै ञो ञौ ञं ञः
C
E
R
E
B
R
A
L
S
ट् टा टि टी टु टू टृ टे टै टो टौ टं टः
ठ् ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठृ ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः
ड् डा डि डी डु डू डृ डे डै डो डौ डं डः
ढ् ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढृ ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः
ण् णा णि णी णु णू णृ णे णै णो णौ णं णः
D
E
N
T
A
L
S
त् ता ति ती तु तू तृ ते तै तो तौ तं तः
थ् था थि थी थु थू थृ थे थै थो थौ थं थः
द् दा दि दी दु दू दृ दे दै दो दौ दं दः
ध् धा धि धी धु धू धृ धे धै धो धौ धं धः
न् ना नि नी नु नू नृ ने नै नो नौ नं नः
L
A
B
I
A
L
S
प् पा पि पी पु पू पृ पे पै पो पौ पं पः
फ् फा फि फी फु फू फृ फे फै फो फौ फं फः
ब् बा बि बी बु बू बृ बे बै बो बौ बं बः
भ् भा भि भी भु भू भृ भे भै भो भौ भं भः
म् मा मि मी मु मू मृ मे मै मो मौ मं मः
S
E
M
I
V
O
W
E
L
S
य् या यि यी यु यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः
र् रा रि री रु रू रृ रे रै रो रौ रं रः
ल् ला लि ली लु लू लृ ले लै लो लौ लं लः
व् वा वि वी वु वू वृ वे वै वो वौ वं वः
ळ् ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळृ ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः
S
I
B
I
L
A
N
T
S
श् शा शि शी शु शू शृ शे शै शो शौ शं शः
ष् षा षि षी षु षू षृ षे षै षो षौ षं षः
स् सा सि सी सु सू सृ से सै सो सौ सं सः
ह् हा हि ही हु हू हृ हे है हो हौ हं हः
ASPIRANT

     The previous post about the vowels in Sanskrit Letters includes an image, that clearly explains the pronunciation of letters. Please refer to that.

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One response to “Lesson 2 – द्वितीय पाठ:

  1. shriram kannan March 26, 2012 at 11:44 PM

    good work… excellent compilation..

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