Sanskrit Institute

पठत संस्कृतम्

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Lesson 8 – अष्टम पाठः

हरिः ॐ!

We will began to read with 7 cases and all three numbers of सुवन्तपद (suvantapada) RAM(राम / rama) शब्द / shabda. This example is written with the शब्द / shabda (राम / rama) which ends with a vowel syllable   (i.e) म् + अ = म. The method which we used here is only for the noun forms those ends with the vowel syllable (अ). This usage of cases will vary according to the vowel syllable that ends in every शब्द / shabda.

We title this as अकारान्तः पुल्लिङ्गः राम सब्धः – akArAntah pullingah rAma shabdhah. This means to, the word rama which ends with the vowel syllable a.

विभक्ति – Cases एकवचन – Singular द्विवचन – Dual बहुवचन – Plular
1. रामः रामौ रामाः
2. रामं रामौ रामान्
3. रामेण रामाभ्यां रामैः
4. रामाय रामाभ्यां रामेभ्यः
5. रामात् रामाभ्यां रामेभ्यः
6. रामस्य रामयोः रामाणां
7. रामे रामयोः रामेषु
8. हे राम हे रामौ हे रामाः

Let us discuss about each विभक्ति and its terms of usage.

1. रामः – One Rama ; रामौ – Two Ramas ; रामाः – Many Ramas. It is simple a noun given to a person. Consider few examples,

He is rama – एषः रामः

He is a God – एषः एकः भगवान्

2. Now consider rama as an object. Let us see few more examples,

Here look at rama – अत्र रामं पश्य

Here look at two ramas – अत्र रामौ पश्य

Here look at many ramas – अत्र रामान् पश्य

3. रामेण – by a rama

रामाभ्यां – by two ramas

रामैः – by many ramas

4. रामाय – (for / to) a rama

रामाभ्यां – (for / to) two ramas

रामेभ्यः – (for / to) many ramas

5. रामात् – from a rama

रामाभ्यां – from two ramas

रामेभ्यः – from many ramas

6. रामस्य – of a rama

रामयोः – of two ramas

रामाणां – of many ramas

7. रामे – in a rama

रामयोः – in two ramas

रामेषु – in many ramas

8. हे राम – hey! rama.

हे रामौ – hey! two ramas.

हे रामाः – hey! many ramas.

Few more example sentences discussing the cases orderly from 1 to 8,

1. भगवान् रामः – God Rama.

2. Worship rama – रामं क्रतु – rAmam kratu

3. We lives by rama – वयम् रामेण जीवामः – vayam rAmeNa jIvAmah

4. So, we salute to rama – अतः वयम् रामाय वन्दनं कुर्मः – atah vayam rAmAya vandanam kurmah

5. And we get blessings from rama – वयम् रामात् आशीर्वादम् लभामः च – vayam rAmAt AshErvAdam labhAmah ca

6. We are the children of rama – वयम् रामस्य सुताः – vayam rAmasya sutAh

7. So, We surrender to rama – अतः वयम् रामे आत्मसमर्पणं कुर्मः – atah vayam rAme AtmasamarpaNam kurmah

8. Now say, hey Rama! hey Rama!  hey Rama! – अथ वदामः, हे राम! हे राम! हे राम!

 — शुभमस्तु —

Lesson 7 – सष्ठम पाठः

हरिः ॐ !

Getting started to look the Sanskrit Sentences in a grammatical approach. Although we have started to speak Sanskrit sentences in the previous chapters, this lesson is gonna be a very useful one for us, that can teach us more grammatical. So far, we have discussed about the persons in a sentence in Lesson 6.

Lets read the following sentence to understand these basic elements of a sentence.

ex:  The boy is reading a book – बालकः पुस्तकम्  पठति.

In the sentence “boy” is the “Subject”, “reading” is “Verb” and the “book” is the “Object”.

The boy(बालकः )              is reading (पठति)          a book. (पुस्तकम् )
|    Subject        |            |      Verb          |        |      object          |

“who is reading?” – “the boy”. So, the “boy” here is the Subject. It is also called the “Noun”. The answer that comes in response to question “what is the boy doing?” is “reading”. The “reading” here is the “Verb”. Similarly the answer to “what is the boy reading?” is “book”. The “book” becomes the “Object”.

Lets see another example.

ex:  The boy is laughingबालकः हास्यति.

In the above sentence “boy” is the “Subject“, “laughing” is “Verb”. But, there is no “Object” in this sentence.

The boy(बालकः)            is laughing (हास्यति).
|    Subject      |          |         Verb            |

“what is the boy laughing?” no answer for this question. So, laughing becomes an “Intransitive Verb“. However in the first sentence “what is the boy reading?” gives answer “book”. In this case the “reading” becomes a “Transitive Verb”.

Now we have understood the basic elements of a sentence, we will begin with more details of Sanskrit language.

These are the Sanskrit words used to express the following terms:

Subject is called -> कर्ता / kartA
Object is called  -> कर्म / karma
Verb is called    -> क्रिया / kriyA
Transitive Verb is called   -> सकर्मक / sakarmaka
Intransitive Verb is called -> अकर्मक / akarmaka

Hence we can understand from the above statements:

The boy(बालकः )        is reading (पठति)       a book. (पुस्तकम् )
|    Subject      |       |      Verb          |       |      object     |
|    कर्ता/kartaa  |       |  क्रिया/kriyaa      |       |      (सकर्मक / sakarmaka)   कर्म/karma   |

The boy(बालकः)         is laughing (हास्यति).
|    Subject      |       |      Verb    |
|    कर्ता/kartaa  |       | क्रिया/kriyaa (अकर्मक / akarmaka) |

Classified view of words:

In all the languages a sentence is made up of multiple words composed in a well defined structure giving a sensible meaning to the sentence. These words can be categorized into three different types

  • Noun
  • Verb
  • Indeclinable

Besides the above classifications nouns and verbs can also be part of following categories with minor derivations like addition of ‘ility’, ‘ily’, ‘tion’, ‘ing’ etc., as well as based on their usage and grammatical rules

  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Adverb

Also in Sanskrit, words are classified into similar categories. Following is a representation of the important classifications. We can see the classification is almost same as all the other languages. Each classification has been described in the coming chapters.

                     |--------------- Noun Root (शब्द / shabda)
                     |                             |
                     |              ------------------------------
                     |             |                              |
                     |           सुवन्तपद                         तद्धितपद
                     |           suvantapada                    taddhitapada
                     |             |
                     |         ---------------------------------------------
                     |        |                    |                        |
Word (पद / pada) ----|    Masculine             Feminine                Neuter
                     |    पुलिङ्ग                 स्त्रीलिङ्ग                  नपुङ्सकलिन्ग
                     |    pulinga               strIlinga               napunsakalinga
                     |--------------- Verb Root (धातु / dhAtu)
                            |                                             |
                         तिङतपद                                        कृदन्तपद
                         tintapada                                     krudantapada
        |                             |                              |
     परस्मैपदी                         आत्मनेपदी                      उभयपदी
  parasmaipadI                       AtmanepadI                   ubhayapadI

Nouns (शब्द / shabda): Noun is the word that represents someone or something in a sentence. Noun normally refers to person, place, thing, state or quality etc. A noun is the only word that can be used as the subject or object for a verb in a sentence.

Noun in Sanskrit is called शब्द (shabda) or noun-root. It is also called कर्तृपद (kartrupada). Noun can be classified into सुवन्तपद (suvantapada) and तद्धितपद (taddhipada).

सुवन्तपद (suvantapada):

  1. This classification is based on the gender, number and case of the noun. The noun-forms are used to express something or someone etc.
  2. सुवन्तपद or suvantapada meaning – words ending with सुप् (sup) suffix.
  3. In this classification nouns are categorised into three different “genders” (लिङ्ग / liN^ga) such as, “masculine” (पुंलिङ्ग / pu.nliN^ga), “feminine” (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga) and “neuter” (नपुंसकलिङ्ग / napu.nsakaliN^ga).
  4. Each noun also has three “numbers” (वचन / vachana viz., एकवचन – singular , द्वीवच्न – dual, बहुवचन – plural) and 7 “cases” (विभक्ति / vibhakti).
  5. Each noun has a different derivation based on the “number” and “case”. Unlike other languages, in Sanskrit the noun has its different forms built into itself. The “noun base” is called शब्द (shabda) and the “derived noun forms” are called शब्दरुप (shabdarupa).

तद्धितपद (taddhitapada): In this classification special suffixes are added to the noun to get noun forms used as – subject, adjectives, indeclinable etc.


Lesson 6 – षष्ठम पाठः

     Today, we discuss about the nouns especially, the kind of persons those act as a subject in a sentence. As we already known to the three kind of persons, it is not going to be a new one for us. But, here we use to learn the words of Sanskrit to express the three kind of persons. The following table discuss in detail about the three persons.

Person Sanskrit Transliteration
First Person प्रथमपुरुष prathama purusha
Second Person मध्यमपुरुष madhyama purusha
Third or last person उत्तमपुरुष uttama purusha

Singular nouns:    When a noun means only one, it is said to be singular.

Person English Sanskrit Transliteration
1st I अहम् aham
2nd You त्वम् tvam
3rd He सः sah
She सा sA
It तत् tat

Plural nouns:    When a noun means more than one, it is said to be plural.

Person English Sanskrit Transliteration
1st We वयम् vayam
2nd You युयम् yUyam
3rd He (They masculine.) ते te
She (They feminine.) ताः tAh
It (They neuter.) तानि tAni

     The above two tables show a brief preview of singular and plural form of nouns for the three kinds of person in a sentence. But, Sanskrit has another form of noun which means exactly two in count, in other words dual noun. It is because, our ancestors reviewed, examined the worldly objects which are diverged as two forms. For example, male and female, top and bottom, front and back, left and right, love and hate, happy and sad and many more. So, they used to design the dual nouns that can refer the two objects exactly. Such nouns are called dual nouns.

Dual nouns:    When a noun means two, it is said to be dual.

Person English Sanskrit Transliteration
1st We (two) आवाम् AvAm
2nd You (two) युवाम् yuvAm
3rd They (two masculine.) ते te
They (two feminine.) ते te
They (two neuters.) तानि tAni


  • singular    –    एकवचन      –    ekavacana
  • plural        –    बहुवचन        –    bahuvacana
  • dual           –    द्विवचन          –    dvivacana


Lesson 5 – पञ्चम पाठः

     Today we, use to learn few words which we use casually in our daily life.

Iअहम् – aham अहम् _______________.
Fill up your name above. Nice to meet you dear friend. Let’s go. We search for a listener. I got you. (For me you are my listener). Youत्वम् – tvam. Let we discuss each other.

Hello, I am Hari. – अरे, अहम् हरिःarey, aham harihi.
What is your name? – _________________
I would like to know your name, please comment out below the post.

     Let us speak more about the word I. This is a good philosophy said by our ancestors. In Sanskrit, I mean अहम्. Look the letters those form the word अहम्. अ + ह + म्. The first letter in Sanskrit language is अ. The last letter in Sanskrit language is ह. At last म्. Continue saying this letter …म्… If we sound a letter or simply sound it has some uniqueness. But all the sounds, dissolves in to a common point of sound simply a vibrating sound under a common pitch. It has no end. It continues to vibrate for ever even no one to hear. Like wise, the letters in Sanskrit creates several sounds that mingle in to single sound frequency …म्…

     As this word is used to identify me, I am going to think about myself. Let us all think about us. The first resource which we took from this earth is the air, which continuously vitalizing us from the time of our birth. The first time we inhale through the mouth, there comes the letter अ. And finally, there will be a time for us one day; we must leave this life. We can’t take the air which we inhale from this earth after death. So, we will be exhaled and that elapses. Ha……………. ह. Here comes the letter ह.

     As like as the letters we may be differed by country, literacy, wealth, health, religion, cast, creed, character, color, height, weight and many more. But we need to know that we all dissolve in to a single supernatural power GOD. As the rivers dissolve in to the ocean, we all the same in the hands of GOD. Let us treat each other equally.

May all people be happy! – सर्वे जनाः सुकिनो भवन्तु!

Let us use some objects. For example, Sanskrit, a book and milk. Let us do some work with those objects.

Sno. English Sentence संस्कृत वाक्यम्
1. You read त्वम् पठ.
2. You write त्वम् लिख.
3. You read Sanskrit त्वम् संस्कृतम् पठ.
4. You write Sanskrit त्वम् संस्कृतम् लिख.
5. You read book त्वम् पुस्तकम् पठ.
6. You read a book त्वम् एकम् पुस्तकम् पठ.
7. You write book त्वम् पुस्तकम् लिख.
8. You drink त्वम् पिब.
9. You drink milk त्वम् दुग्घम् पिब.

It seems good, we spoke 9 lines in Sanskrit. This is very very good. Let us appreciate each other. Jayatu Samskrutam – जयतु संस्कृतम् !


Words we have used in the above lines of speech.

Noun as Subject – kartru – कर्तृ:

  1. I – अहम् – aham
  2. You – त्वम् – tvam

Countable Noun – गम्य नामन्

  1. A – एकम् – ekam

Verb – kriyApadAni – क्रियापदानि:

  1. Read – पठ (पठ्) – patha
  2. Read – लिख (लिख्) – likha
  3. Drink – पिब (पिब्) – piba

Note : The words given in the brackets are the root words of the verbs.

Object – अभिसंधि or simply – वस्तु

  1. Sanskrit – संस्कृतम् – samskrutam
  2. Book – पुस्तकम् – pustakam
  3. Milk – दुग्घम्- duggham

Well done! Today we have discussed about two subjects, three verbs and three objects. Now we do some exercise.

Exercise- अभ्यासः

I. Use the words given below and translate the following sentences in to Sanskrit :-

  1. You read exercise.
  2. You write exercise.
  3. You do exercise.
  4. You do work.
  5. You eat food.

Words :

  1. You – त्वम् – tvam
  2. Read – लिख (लिख्) – likha
  3. do – कुरु (कृ) – kuru
  4. eat – खाद (खाद्) – khAda
  5. Exercise – अभ्यासः – abhyAsah – व्यायामम् – vyAyAmah
  6. Work – कार्यम् – kAryam
  7. Food – भोजनम् – bhOjanam


lesson 4 – चतुर्थ पाठः

These are a few sample words that forms by the combination of letters “संयुक्ताक्षराणि“.

Sno. अक्षराः संयुक्ताक्षरः Pronunciation शब्द: – Word अर्थ – Meaning
1. क् + क क्क kka अक्का Mother
2. क् + त क्त kta भक्तः Devotee
3. क् + म क्म kma रुक्मम् Gold
4. क् + य क्य kya वाक्यम् Sentence
5. क् + र क्र kra वक्रम् Crooked
6. क् + ल क्ल kla शुक्लः White
7. क् + व क्व kva पक्वम् Ripe
8. क् + ष क्ष ksha दक्षः Talented
9. क् + ष् + ण क्ष्ण kshNa तीक्ष्णः Sharp
10. क् + ष् + म क्ष्म kshma सूक्ष्म Subtle

Lesson 3 – तृतीय पाठः

SamyuktAksharANi – संयुक्ताक्षराणि

Today’s lesson is going to be a good one, as we are stepping on to the final step of learning the Sanskrit Letters. In this discussion we use to know about the combination of sounds and their letter form. In Sanskrit, we can combine two or three consonants to produce a combination of three sounds. In such a way, those letters can have a unique way of script for writing it. A letter is commonly known as अक्षरः (aksharah). संयुक्त means act of joining or combining. When we combine two or more consonants it becomes संयुक्ताक्षराणि – samyuktAksharANi. अक्षर: is singular and अक्षराणि is plural.

Example 1:

Consider a word “IndrA”. By splitting the word into syllables we can hear, ind – ra. Hence “IND” is a syllable and “RA” is another one. Now writing in Sanskrit as “इन्द्” – “रा” – “इन्द्रा“.

At First, इ – न् – द् – gives – इन्द्, then रा combines to give “इन्द्रा“. Now just analyze the process.

  • is a vowel.
  • न् is a sound generated by the speech organ. simply a body letter.
  • द् is a sound generated by the speech organ. simply a body letter.
  • रा is a consonant generated when a body letter र् and a vowel combines.

When combining the letters we can follow a simple algorithm that combines all the body letters first and at last with the consonant letter. The order of letters are to be written in order as we speak and be spoke as we write.

Example 2:

Similarly consider a word “padmA”. Split the word into syllables as “pad” + “mA” = “पद्” + “मा“.

  • प् + अ = प + द् = पद् + मा = पद्मा

hence we understand the letters द् + gives द्म.

The following table can explain in detail about combining the letters. These संयुक्ताक्षराणि are being commonly used in Sanskrit Language.

क्ष ज्ञ
क्क क्ख क्ग क्घ क्ङ क्च क्छ क्ज क्झ क्ञ क्ट क्ठ क्ड क्ढ क्ण क्त क्थ क्द क्ध क्न क्प क्फ क्ब क्भ क्म क्य क्र क्ल क्व क्श क्ष क्स क्ह क्ळ क्क्ष क्ज्ञ
ख्क ख्ख ख्ग ख्घ ख्ङ ख्च ख्छ ख्ज ख्झ ख्ञ ख्ट ख्ठ ख्ड ख्ढ ख्ण ख्त ख्थ ख्द ख्ध ख्न ख्प ख्फ ख्ब ख्भ ख्म ख्य ख्र ख्ल ख्व ख्श ख्ष ख्स ख्ह ख्ळ ख्क्ष ख्ज्ञ
ग्क ग्ख ग्ग ग्घ ग्ङ ग्च ग्छ ग्ज ग्झ ग्ञ ग्ट ग्ठ ग्ड ग्ढ ग्ण ग्त ग्थ ग्द ग्ध ग्न ग्प ग्फ ग्ब ग्भ ग्म ग्य ग्र ग्ल ग्व ग्श ग्ष ग्स ग्ह ग्ळ ग्क्ष ग्ज्ञ
घ्क घ्ख घ्ग घ्घ घ्ङ घ्च घ्छ घ्ज घ्झ घ्ञ घ्ट घ्ठ घ्ड घ्ढ घ्ण घ्त घ्थ घ्द घ्ध घ्न घ्प घ्फ घ्ब घ्भ घ्म घ्य घ्र घ्ल घ्व घ्श घ्ष घ्स घ्ह घ्ळ घ्क्ष घ्ज्ञ
ङ्क ङ्ख ङ्ग ङ्घ ङ्ङ ङ्च ङ्छ ङ्ज ङ्झ ङ्ञ ङ्ट ङ्ठ ङ्ड ङ्ढ ङ्ण ङ्त ङ्थ ङ्द ङ्ध ङ्न ङ्प ङ्फ ङ्ब ङ्भ ङ्म ङ्य ङ्र ङ्ल ङ्व ङ्श ङ्ष ङ्स ङ्ह ङ्ळ ङ्क्ष ङ्ज्ञ
च्क च्ख च्ग च्घ च्ङ च्च च्छ च्ज च्झ च्ञ च्ट च्ठ च्ड च्ढ च्ण च्त च्थ च्द च्ध च्न च्प च्फ च्ब च्भ च्म च्य च्र च्ल च्व च्श च्ष च्स च्ह च्ळ च्क्ष च्ज्ञ
छ्क छ्ख छ्ग छ्घ छ्ङ छ्च छ्छ छ्ज छ्झ छ्ञ छ्ट छ्ठ छ्ड छ्ढ छ्ण छ्त छ्थ छ्द छ्ध छ्न छ्प छ्फ छ्ब छ्भ छ्म छ्य छ्र छ्ल छ्व छ्श छ्ष छ्स छ्ह छ्ळ छ्क्ष छ्ज्ञ
ज्क ज्ख ज्ग ज्घ ज्ङ ज्च ज्छ ज्ज ज्झ ज्ञ ज्ट ज्ठ ज्ड ज्ढ ज्ण ज्त ज्थ ज्द ज्ध ज्न ज्प ज्फ ज्ब ज्भ ज्म ज्य ज्र ज्ल ज्व ज्श ज्ष ज्स ज्ह ज्ळ ज्क्ष ज्ज्ञ
झ्क झ्ख झ्ग झ्घ झ्ङ झ्च झ्छ झ्ज झ्झ झ्ञ झ्ट झ्ठ झ्ड झ्ढ झ्ण झ्त झ्थ झ्द झ्ध झ्न झ्प झ्फ झ्ब झ्भ झ्म झ्य झ्र झ्ल झ्व झ्श झ्ष झ्स झ्ह झ्ळ झ्क्ष झ्ज्ञ
ञ्क ञ्ख ञ्ग ञ्घ ञ्ङ ञ्च ञ्छ ञ्ज ञ्झ ञ्ञ ञ्ट ञ्ठ ञ्ड ञ्ढ ञ्ण ञ्त ञ्थ ञ्द ञ्ध ञ्न ञ्प ञ्फ ञ्ब ञ्भ ञ्म ञ्य ञ्र ञ्ल ञ्व ञ्श ञ्ष ञ्स ञ्ह ञ्ळ ञ्क्ष ञ्ज्ञ
ट्क ट्ख ट्ग ट्घ ट्ङ ट्च ट्छ ट्ज ट्झ ट्ञ ट्ट ट्ठ ट्ड ट्ढ ट्ण ट्त ट्थ ट्द ट्ध ट्न ट्प ट्फ ट्ब ट्भ ट्म ट्य ट्र ट्ल ट्व ट्श ट्ष ट्स ट्ह ट्ळ ट्क्ष ट्ज्ञ
ठ्क ठ्ख ठ्ग ठ्घ ठ्ङ ठ्च ठ्छ ठ्ज ठ्झ ठ्ञ ठ्ट ठ्ठ ठ्ड ठ्ढ ठ्ण ठ्त ठ्थ ठ्द ठ्ध ठ्न ठ्प ठ्फ ठ्ब ठ्भ ठ्म ठ्य ठ्र ठ्ल ठ्व ठ्श ठ्ष ठ्स ठ्ह ठ्ळ ठ्क्ष ठ्ज्ञ
ड्क ड्ख ड्ग ड्घ ड्ङ ड्च ड्छ ड्ज ड्झ ड्ञ ड्ट ड्ठ ड्ड ड्ढ ड्ण ड्त ड्थ ड्द ड्ध ड्न ड्प ड्फ ड्ब ड्भ ड्म ड्य ड्र ड्ल ड्व ड्श ड्ष ड्स ड्ह ड्ळ ड्क्ष ड्ज्ञ
ढ्क ढ्ख ढ्ग ढ्घ ढ्ङ ढ्च ढ्छ ढ्ज ढ्झ ढ्ञ ढ्ट ढ्ठ ढ्ड ढ्ढ ढ्ण ढ्त ढ्थ ढ्द ढ्ध ढ्न ढ्प ढ्फ ढ्ब ढ्भ ढ्म ढ्य ढ्र ढ्ल ढ्व ढ्श ढ्ष ढ्स ढ्ह ढ्ळ ढ्क्ष ढ्ज्ञ
ण्क ण्ख ण्ग ण्घ ण्ङ ण्च ण्छ ण्ज ण्झ ण्ञ ण्ट ण्ठ ण्ड ण्ढ ण्ण ण्त ण्थ ण्द ण्ध ण्न ण्प ण्फ ण्ब ण्भ ण्म ण्य ण्र ण्ल ण्व ण्श ण्ष ण्स ण्ह ण्ळ ण्क्ष ण्ज्ञ
त्क त्ख त्ग त्घ त्ङ त्च त्छ त्ज त्झ त्ञ त्ट त्ठ त्ड त्ढ त्ण त्त त्थ त्द त्ध त्न त्प त्फ त्ब त्भ त्म त्य त्र त्ल त्व त्श त्ष त्स त्ह त्ळ त्क्ष त्ज्ञ
थ्क थ्ख थ्ग थ्घ थ्ङ थ्च थ्छ थ्ज थ्झ थ्ञ थ्ट थ्ठ थ्ड थ्ढ थ्ण थ्त थ्थ थ्द थ्ध थ्न थ्प थ्फ थ्ब थ्भ थ्म थ्य थ्र थ्ल थ्व थ्श थ्ष थ्स थ्ह थ्ळ थ्क्ष थ्ज्ञ
द्क द्ख द्ग द्घ द्ङ द्च द्छ द्ज द्झ द्ञ द्ट द्ठ द्ड द्ढ द्ण द्त द्थ द्द द्ध द्न द्प द्फ द्ब द्भ द्म द्य द्र द्ल द्व द्श द्ष द्स द्ह द्ळ द्क्ष द्ज्ञ
ध्क ध्ख ध्ग ध्घ ध्ङ ध्च ध्छ ध्ज ध्झ ध्ञ ध्ट ध्ठ ध्ड ध्ढ ध्ण ध्त ध्थ ध्द ध्ध ध्न ध्प ध्फ ध्ब ध्भ ध्म ध्य ध्र ध्ल ध्व ध्श ध्ष ध्स ध्ह ध्ळ ध्क्ष ध्ज्ञ
न्क न्ख न्ग न्घ न्ङ न्च न्छ न्ज न्झ न्ञ न्ट न्ठ न्ड न्ढ न्ण न्त न्थ न्द न्ध न्न न्प न्फ न्ब न्भ न्म न्य न्र न्ल न्व न्श न्ष न्स न्ह न्ळ न्क्ष न्ज्ञ
प्क प्ख प्ग प्घ प्ङ प्च प्छ प्ज प्झ प्ञ प्ट प्ठ प्ड प्ढ प्ण प्त प्थ प्द प्ध प्न प्प प्फ प्ब प्भ प्म प्य प्र प्ल प्व प्श प्ष प्स प्ह प्ळ प्क्ष प्ज्ञ
फ्क फ्ख फ्ग फ्घ फ्ङ फ्च फ्छ फ्ज फ्झ फ्ञ फ्ट फ्ठ फ्ड फ्ढ फ्ण फ्त फ्थ फ्द फ्ध फ्न फ्प फ्फ फ्ब फ्भ फ्म फ्य फ्र फ्ल फ्व फ्श फ्ष फ्स फ्ह फ्ळ फ्क्ष फ्ज्ञ
ब्क ब्ख ब्ग ब्घ ब्ङ ब्च ब्छ ब्ज ब्झ ब्ञ ब्ट ब्ठ ब्ड ब्ढ ब्ण ब्त ब्थ ब्द ब्ध ब्न ब्प ब्फ ब्ब ब्भ ब्म ब्य ब्र ब्ल ब्व ब्श ब्ष ब्स ब्ह ब्ळ ब्क्ष ब्ज्ञ
भ्क भ्ख भ्ग भ्घ भ्ङ भ्च भ्छ भ्ज भ्झ भ्ञ भ्ट भ्ठ भ्ड भ्ढ भ्ण भ्त भ्थ भ्द भ्ध भ्न भ्प भ्फ भ्ब भ्भ भ्म भ्य भ्र भ्ल भ्व भ्श भ्ष भ्स भ्ह भ्ळ भ्क्ष भ्ज्ञ
म्क म्ख म्ग म्घ म्ङ म्च म्छ म्ज म्झ म्ञ म्ट म्ठ म्ड म्ढ म्ण म्त म्थ म्द म्ध म्न म्प म्फ म्ब म्भ म्म म्य म्र म्ल म्व म्श म्ष म्स म्ह म्ळ म्क्ष म्ज्ञ
य्क य्ख य्ग य्घ य्ङ य्च य्छ य्ज य्झ य्ञ य्ट य्ठ य्ड य्ढ य्ण य्त य्थ य्द य्ध य्न य्प य्फ य्ब य्भ य्म य्य य्र य्ल य्व य्श य्ष य्स य्ह य्ळ य्क्ष य्ज्ञ
र्क र्ख र्ग र्घ र्ङ र्च र्छ र्ज र्झ र्ञ र्ट र्ठ र्ड र्ढ र्ण र्त र्थ र्द र्ध र्न र्प र्फ र्ब र्भ र्म र्य र्र र्ल र्व र्श र्ष र्स र्ह र्ळ र्क्ष र्ज्ञ
ल्क ल्ख ल्ग ल्घ ल्ङ ल्च ल्छ ल्ज ल्झ ल्ञ ल्ट ल्ठ ल्ड ल्ढ ल्ण ल्त ल्थ ल्द ल्ध ल्न ल्प ल्फ ल्ब ल्भ ल्म ल्य ल्र ल्ल ल्व ल्श ल्ष ल्स ल्ह ल्ळ ल्क्ष ल्ज्ञ
व्क व्ख व्ग व्घ व्ङ व्च व्छ व्ज व्झ व्ञ व्ट व्ठ व्ड व्ढ व्ण व्त व्थ व्द व्ध व्न व्प व्फ व्ब व्भ व्म व्य व्र व्ल व्व व्श व्ष व्स व्ह व्ळ व्क्ष व्ज्ञ
श्क श्ख श्ग श्घ श्ङ श्च श्छ श्ज श्झ श्ञ श्ट श्ठ श्ड श्ढ श्ण श्त श्थ श्द श्ध श्न श्प श्फ श्ब श्भ श्म श्य श्र श्ल श्व श्श श्ष श्स श्ह श्ळ श्क्ष श्ज्ञ
ष्क ष्ख ष्ग ष्घ ष्ङ ष्च ष्छ ष्ज ष्झ ष्ञ ष्ट ष्ठ ष्ड ष्ढ ष्ण ष्त ष्थ ष्द ष्ध ष्न ष्प ष्फ ष्ब ष्भ ष्म ष्य ष्र ष्ल ष्व ष्श ष्ष ष्स ष्ह ष्ळ ष्क्ष ष्ज्ञ
स्क स्ख स्ग स्घ स्ङ स्च स्छ स्ज स्झ स्ञ स्ट स्ठ स्ड स्ढ स्ण स्त स्थ स्द स्ध स्न स्प स्फ स्ब स्भ स्म स्य स्र स्ल स्व स्श स्ष स्स स्ह स्ळ स्क्ष स्ज्ञ
ह्क ह्ख ह्ग ह्घ ह्ङ ह्च ह्छ ह्ज ह्झ ह्ञ ह्ट ह्ठ ह्ड ह्ढ ह्ण ह्त ह्थ ह्द ह्ध ह्न ह्प ह्फ ह्ब ह्भ ह्म ह्य ह्र ह्ल ह्व ह्श ह्ष ह्स ह्ह ह्ळ ह्क्ष ह्ज्ञ
ळ्क ळ्ख ळ्ग ळ्घ ळ्ङ ळ्च ळ्छ ळ्ज ळ्झ ळ्ञ ळ्ट ळ्ठ ळ्ड ळ्ढ ळ्ण ळ्त ळ्थ ळ्द ळ्ध ळ्न ळ्प ळ्फ ळ्ब ळ्भ ळ्म ळ्य ळ्र ळ्ल ळ्व ळ्श ळ्ष ळ्स ळ्ह ळ्ळ ळ्क्ष ळ्ज्ञ

     Now we can do a sample exercise so that it can be very useful for better understanding. Interested people can comment out below. Try the following words and write it in your comments as we have discussed in the above two examples.

  1. bandham
  2. pankajam
  3. jayishNu
  4. prahrushta
  5. prapadAnvitA


Lesson 2 – द्वितीय पाठ:

प्रिय मित्राः – priya mitrAhA – Dear friends,

     Today, we shall discuss about the second part of Sanskrit Alphabets. In the previous section we discussed about the vowels. Now, we use the sounds which are generated by the movements of our speech organs. Vowels are the sounds which are generated automatically when we breath (अ – आ), smile (इ – ई), surprise (उ – ऊ) and others. The sounds which can be generated by controlling the speech organs such as tongue, tooth, lips, throat we can generate nearly 32 different kind of sounds. These sounds can be generated either by exhaling the air or not. These sounds are called consonants. It can be said as “A basic speech sound in which the breath is at least partly obstructed and which can be combined with a vowel to form a syllable”.

These sounds can be classified as

  1. Guttural – Sounds purely generated from the base of throat alone.
  2. Palatal – Sounds generated with the help of tongue.
  3. Cerebral – Sounds generated from the throat and it reaches the cerebral portion of head when it finishes.
  4. Dental – Sounds generated when the tongue and tooth are joined.
  5. Labial – Sounds generated when the tip of the tongue makes any one or both the lips active. The tongue should not touch the any  of the tooth.
  6. Semi Vowel – Sounds that is intermediate to a vowel and a consonant and must not be a syllabic sound.
  7. Sibilants – Sounds made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth.
  8. Aspirant – Sound that is generated completely when air elapses out of the mouth.

The following table explains in detail about the combination of sounds with vowels, and results the consonants.

Table 2 : Classical Sanskrit Letters – CONSONANTS – व्यञ्जनानि – VyanjanAni

लृ अं अः
क् का कि की कु कू कृ के कै को कौ कं कः
ख् खा खि खी खु खू खृ खे खै खो खौ खं खः
ग् गा गि गी गु गू गृ गे गै गो गौ गं गः
घ् घा घि घी घु घू घृ घे घै घो घौ घं घः
ङ् ड़ा ड़ि ड़ी ड़ु ड़ू ड़ृ ड़े ड़ै ड़ो ड़ौ ड़ं ड़ः
च् चा चि ची चु चू चृ चे चै चो चौ चं चः
छ् छा छि छी छु छू छृ छे छै छो छौ छं छः
ज् जा जि जी जु जू जृ जे जै जो जौ जं जः
झ् झा झि झी झु झू झृ झे झै झो झौ झं झः
ञ् ञा ञि ञी ञु ञू ञृ ञे ञै ञो ञौ ञं ञः
ट् टा टि टी टु टू टृ टे टै टो टौ टं टः
ठ् ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठृ ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः
ड् डा डि डी डु डू डृ डे डै डो डौ डं डः
ढ् ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढृ ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः
ण् णा णि णी णु णू णृ णे णै णो णौ णं णः
त् ता ति ती तु तू तृ ते तै तो तौ तं तः
थ् था थि थी थु थू थृ थे थै थो थौ थं थः
द् दा दि दी दु दू दृ दे दै दो दौ दं दः
ध् धा धि धी धु धू धृ धे धै धो धौ धं धः
न् ना नि नी नु नू नृ ने नै नो नौ नं नः
प् पा पि पी पु पू पृ पे पै पो पौ पं पः
फ् फा फि फी फु फू फृ फे फै फो फौ फं फः
ब् बा बि बी बु बू बृ बे बै बो बौ बं बः
भ् भा भि भी भु भू भृ भे भै भो भौ भं भः
म् मा मि मी मु मू मृ मे मै मो मौ मं मः
य् या यि यी यु यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः
र् रा रि री रु रू रृ रे रै रो रौ रं रः
ल् ला लि ली लु लू लृ ले लै लो लौ लं लः
व् वा वि वी वु वू वृ वे वै वो वौ वं वः
ळ् ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळृ ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः
श् शा शि शी शु शू शृ शे शै शो शौ शं शः
ष् षा षि षी षु षू षृ षे षै षो षौ षं षः
स् सा सि सी सु सू सृ से सै सो सौ सं सः
ह् हा हि ही हु हू हृ हे है हो हौ हं हः

     The previous post about the vowels in Sanskrit Letters includes an image, that clearly explains the pronunciation of letters. Please refer to that.

Lesson 1 – प्रथम पाठः

हरिः ओम्! – Hari OM! – Welcome!

     Hope, that the previous article help us to know about the uniqueness of Sanskrit. I would like to hear your comments about our discussions in this blog.

     Well, today we start to discuss about the letters of Sanskrit one by one. The following table discuss a detailed description of Sanskrit letters. Sanskrit Letters are being classified into two ages. They are Ancient Sanskrit Letters & Classical Sanskrit Letters. First we discuss about the Classical Sanskrit Letters, as it is easy to grasp because it is the parent of the modern Hindi Letters. Hindi Letters are commonly known to us, as it can be seen in the Railway Stations, Advertisements and also in the Central Government Official Campus.

The Classical Sanskrit Letters are as below.

Table 1 : Classical Sanskrit Letters – VOWELS स्वर:  swara:

No. अक्षर – Akshara – Letter Transliteration
1. a
2. A
3. i
4. I
6. u
7. U
8. hr
9. hR
10. lr
11. e
12. ai
13. o
14. ou
15. अं am
16. अ: ah

     The above table discuss the Classical Sanskrit Letters with a transliteration script. There are few kinds of translation techniques are developed by many scholars to read the language easily.

     The above letters are considered to be the vowels in the Sanskrit Language. In Sanskrit Vowel means Swara:. The above table has three columns Serial Number as No., अक्षर – AksharaLetter which displays the Sanskrit Letters and the third column displays the transliteration method using English letters.

Other References

English: Sanskrit alphabet with greek subtitle...

Ref : Wikipedia

    The image to the left will explain the letters of Sanskrit with Greek subtitles. This is the actual transliteration script of Sanskrit language accepted by the worldly people.

      Just have a look at this image and post the comments about this article. We will discuss all the letters in the next chapter. Hope this will make you interest in learning Sanskrit.

— सुभम् अस्त —
— Best Wishes —



Dear Brothers & Sisters,

Today we are going to discuss about the alphabets in Sanskrit Language. Before that, I would like to say some information about the alphabets in Sanskrit. This part of post is gonna be an introduction about the structure of Sanskrit language.

Usually, all the languages except “the languages without script” have a set of letters called alphabets, considered to be the basic building blocks of words which we would like to express. Each alphabets are designed in a specific way, each can produce a unique sound. This is common to all the languages.
But there are few languages which interprets the stress & vibration of sound for a single letter in different situations.

What does a unique sound refers here?

For example we can take the language Tamil which is one of the Dravidian Languages being spoken in the State Tamil Nadu of India.
Let us consider the word `Goat`. In Tamil we refer `Goat` as `ஆடு` –  `Aado`.
Let us split the word in to individual letters. Here comes, `Aa` + `do` (i.e.) `` + `டு`.
The letter `Aa` – `` is one of the vowel and also the first vowel of the language Tamil, like wise the second letter `do` – `டு`, is a compound letter by adding a consonant and a vowel namely `it` and `u` respectively.
We pronounce the letter as `it` + `u` = `to` (i.e)  `ட்` + `` = `டு`. But when pronouncing the word `Aadu` we use the sound constant `do` instead of `to`. This is what is wish to said the uniqueness of sound. There are few other languages too, which interpret the sound constants according to the needs.

But Sanskrit, provides an individual set of letters to express various strategies of sound constants. See, a civic man should know a language. And also, he has the rights to speak (or) to create any kind of sound that he wish to express. Sanskrit follows this basic social principle in the alphabets which is the basic building block of a language.

Consider the same sound constants `do` and `to`. As we’ve discussed and in practice we use the same letter `டு` for both the sounds. Now learn Sanskrit, here we’ve two different letters for the above two sound constants literally ` टु ` for the sound `to` and ` डु ` for `do`. The letters ` टु ` and ` डु ` are the compound letters when we combine the two different consonants and a single vowel literally ` ट् ` + `  ` = टु and ` ड् ` + `  ` = ` डु `. In such a way, Sanskrit has a unique approach in its basic design and style.

Let us see more about Sanskrit alphabets in the next post. I would like to hear more from you.

— सुभम् अस्त —
— Best Wishes —